please answer these questions in 2-3 short paragraphs.
1- Choose two of the following and, for each, describe (1) how the attack functions and (2) how secure programming techniques can be used to protect against the attack.
Cross-site scripting (XSS)
SQL code injection
Cross-site request forgery (CSRF)
Web application parameter tampering
2- What is data mapping and how is it useful in terms of security?