1. Pete, an employee of Quality Sales, Inc., takes a Kantian duty-based approach to ethics. Pete believes that he must
achieve the greatest good for the most people.
avoid unethical behavior as determined by reason regardless of the consequences.
conform to society’s standards.
place his employer’s interest first.
1. Bribery, though commonly thought wrongful, arguably can be considered moral pursuant to:
a. Utilitarian ethics if the overall greater good is achieved by paying the bribe even though there are certain negative consequences for some stakeholders (such as the competition and the host society).
b. Ethical egoism from the vantage point of the company paying the bribe if they really need the contract with the foreign government and they have a policy of “letting the locals deal with the locals.”
c. Ethical relativism if making the lavish “gifts” (that is, “bribe” payments”) to foreign government officials is considered to be an acceptable and appropriate practice and custom in the host county.
d. All of the above.
1. Ingrid firmly believes that each person must look at her own feelings of what is right and wrong in order to decide what is moral. Which of the following ethical theories most accurately describes Ingrid’s beliefs?
1. Adam is a Legal Positivist. Adam likely believes that
the law should be applied the same in all cases in all circumstances.
the law should re¬flect universal principles that are part of hu¬man nature.
the law should not follow decisions made in past cases.
the written law of a society at a particular time is the most significant standard of morality.
1. Which of the following is a correct statement?
The third test of Kant’s Categorical Imperative – the Agent-Receiver test – allows people to exempt themselves from moral rules if there are extenuating business circumstances.
One is acting morally, according to Kant, when one seeks to maximize the happiness of oneself.
One problem with Kantian ethics is that two secondary moral rules can pass the supreme test of the Categorical Imperative, yet the rules can conflict.
An ethical system that emphasizes the consequences of a decision is known as a deontological or duty-based one.
1. Norman’s best criticism of Utilitarianism is that it
Requires a prediction of consequences
Requires a measuring and weighing of consequences
Is difficult to determine what a particular society’s moral norms are
Can legitimize morally pain and suffering if a greater good is achieved.
1. Which of the following is a true statement?
A. Ethical relativism requires that an individual evaluate the morality of an action based on a societal standard of morality.
B. Pursuant to a Ethical Egoism it would be inappropriate for a business to undertake any charitable acts for the benefit of the community if doing so reduces profits in the short-term but increases profits in the long-term.
C. Under the Ethical Principle of Last Resort a business should never do anything to help anyone.
D. Ethical audits of corporations are now mandated for all U.S. corporations by the Justice Department and Securities and Exchange Commission.
1. An Act Utilitarian most likely would:
Focus on broad and general categories of actions in doing the Utilitarian analysis.
Focus on narrow, concrete, and factual actions in doing the Utilitarian analysis.
Focus on legislative acts.
Focus on an act to see if it passes the Categorical Imperative test.
1. Ethics is best described as:
The metaphysical study of ultimate reality.
The theoretical study of morality.
The constitutional analysis of equal protection and due process decisions
None of the above.
1. According to the Universal Law principle in Kant’s Categorical Imperative, what is moral basically depends on:
What the United Nations says is legal.
What a country’s legislature says is legal.
What a society regards as moral law.
What would happen, using one’s reason, if all people followed a particular action?