1)What is the main difference between the duties of the nurse and the physician? The nurse is expected to do paperwork, and the physician
is expected to interact with the patient. The nurse is expected to tend to the patient’s physical, mental, and emotional needs, whereas
the physician’s role is to be responsible for the correct diagnosis and treatment recommendations for the patient. The nurse is expected
to help with diagnosis and medication recommendations, and the physician is expected to sign off on them. The nurse is expected to know
the details of billing, and the physician is expected to know the details of biology.
2)What is the main limiting factor in the medical model? It does not consider all physical, mental, and social aspects necessary for
optimal health. It focuses on diagnosis. It focuses on treatment. It tries to relieve symptoms and cure disease.
3)What was the main foundation behind employer-based health insurance in US history? Worker’s compensation insurance was put into place in
the US in the early 1900s. This type of health insurance started during World War II to prevent inflation, then became protected by laws.
Establishing health insurance accessible to all was needed for patients to afford climbing healthcare costs. Medicare was necessary in
order to address the health needs of older Americans, so it was put into place.
4)Why do analysts use “average life expectancy” as a metric to assess a country’s health? Because it is the best measure for comparing
healthcare cost. Because it is the only reliable measure of access to care. Because it is the only reliable measure of health equity. It
reflects not only the general health of the population, but the efficacy of the country’s healthcare system.
5)Which subsystem in the US healthcare system represents social justice The safety net subsystem, which allows low-income people to access
care. The military subsystem, which provides healthcare for current and former members of the US military. The managed care subsystem,
which calculates risk based on the pool of members it has. The long-term care system, which accepts public insurance.
7)Chiropractic care is a holistic approach, but the US healthcare system is not holistic. What is the main approach the US healthcare
system has taken to chiropractic care, given this situation? Chiropractic care is not recommended by physicians. Chiropractic care is not
used as a holistic health approach, and is seen as only helping neck and back pain. Chiropractic care can be covered by health insurance.
Chiropractic care is usually not taught in medical schools.
8)What is the main problem with a patient first going to specialty care for a problem rather than first going to primary care? It will
cost the patient more money. The specialist will try to get the patient to use services in his or her clinic, not services the patient
really needs. If the patient diagnoses himself or herself incorrectly, he or she might see the wrong specialty practitioner and get low
quality care. The medical records the patient has at the specialist won’t relate to the patient’s primary care medical record.
9)What type of intervention would work best to prevent patients from dying of medical errors? A policy intervention, because it would
apply to all facilities in the US or in a state. A healthcare intervention, because it would requirehealthcare facilities to change their
procedures. An individual intervention, where providers are taught patient safety practices. A community level intervention, where the
community holds the healthcare facility to higher standards.
10)What is the most powerful way that organizations try to influence the US healthcare system? They stage public protests and media
events. They provide information to patients about the issues to persuade the patients to agree. They publish articles in the media about
their positions on healthcare. They send lobbyists to Congress to get laws made that are favorable to them.
11)What is the main reason that the objective of an IDS is to deliver a range of services? The IDS can make more money that way by having
to advertise less. The IDS can make more money that way by minimizing cost to deliver services, and by making it easier to contract with
managed care. The IDS can make more money that way by hiring the cheapest staff. The IDS can improve customer ratings this way because
they have easy access to a range of services.
13)Why is it important for health providers who do not work in the US to learn about the US healthcare system? US healthcare is a model
system for the world. The US healthcare system is unique, unlike any other country’s health system in the world, and therefore requires
separate study. The US healthcare system uses subsystems to cover different healthcare activities, rather than one big system. Many
healthcare providers train in the US.
14)What is the main sign of a healthcare disparity? Some groups of people receive more or better healthcare than other groups. Some
providers are not as qualified for their jobs as others. Some states have more hospitals than others. Some hospitals have higher error
rates than others.
15)What is the main problem with having very few health insurers in a region? All the insurers to choose from may not be of high quality.
The insurers may not consider the local issues and culture of the population they are insuring. There is no competition, so the prices for
insurance are high Some insurers may only operate in one state.
16)How can a person use a professional society to gain leadership skills if the person does not have that opportunity in his or her job at
work? By offering to help collect membership dues. By volunteering for charitable events. By participating in research conferences put on
by the society. By volunteering to serve on committees.
17)What is the main problem with the high level of use of technology in the US healthcare system? The technology is regulated, but the
regulations are not effective. The high cost of technology diverts funding away from more efficient healthcare. This causes “medical
tourism”, or people coming from other countries to use healthcare in the US. Clinicians in the US must be highly trained to use this
technology, and that increases healthcare costs.
19)What does the phrase “the government subsidizes the private healthcare sector” mean? The government does not regulate the health sector
as much as it should. The government determines what healthcare services are available in the private sector. Money from the government is
paid to private healthcare organizations. The government sets accreditation standards for all healthcare facilities.
20)Why are there so many more psychologists compared to podiatrists, optometrists and chiropractors in the US healthcare system?
Psychology-related positions pay more than the others. There are more needs for psychologists in the US, as they treat mental illness and
mental illness is very common. Psychology-related positions are easier than those in the other fields. It is easier to get into schools
that teach psychology than schools that teach the other fields.
21)Between 1869 and 1910, what was the main criticism of medical training in the US? Medical training was inconsistent from school to
school. Medical training was racist. Medical training was different in the US compared to Europe. Medical training was not open to women.
22)If a person believes 100% in social justice, what is the best way they believe to distribute healthcare? By having charities pay for
healthcare. By having religious organizations pay for healthcare. By having laws that govern healthcare access. By providing a package
(set of services) of healthcare to every individual in the country which is paid for by the government through taxes.
23)Which healthcare subsystem would be the right one to call in when there is a natural disaster? The managed care subsystem, because it
has a lot of money and will be able to save a lot of money if the effects of the disaster are minimized. The military subsystem, so it can
help with the natural disaster fallout. The public health subsystem, so it can help people prevent disease spread in the aftermath of the
disaster. The safety net system, as many people will be without insurance after the disaster.
25)When someone says, “The US has a hole in its healthcare safety net”, what does that mean? Low income, uninsured and other types of
people who use the US safety net subsystem often find barriers to access. There are problems with the quality of emergency room care in
the US. Middle-class people have trouble paying for health insurance. Many insurance plans do not cover substance abuse services
adequately, leading people to end up homeless.
26)If you were interested a health-related position that does mainly research and statistics, which would be the best choice for you?
Pursuing a career in psychology, including getting a doctoral degree in psychology. Pursuing a career in public health, including getting
a masters of public health (MPH). Pursuing a career in social work, including getting a master of social work. Pursuing a career in
nursing, including getting a master of science in nursing.
27)What was the main reason hospitals started being built in urban areas after the Civil War? Because people in the rural area could
easily locate hospitals in main cities. Because cities were proud to have a hospital as part of their resources. Because religious
organizations felt these services should be put in cities. To be near where the population was now living.
28)What does the US healthcare system expect the patient to be accountable for? Paying for their health care bill. Safeguarding their own
health, and using healthcare resources wisely. Selecting the appropriate specialty care.
Selecting the best health insurance for themselves.
29)What is market justice not designed to do? Have a mechanism to address social problems, such as crime, homelessness, and teen
pregnancy. Have a mechanism to prevent prices from getting too high. Have a mechanism to control misinformation and false advertising.
Have a mechanism to ensure healthcare safety and quality.