22. History 3, American Civilization, 1607-1877
Directions: Answer two (2) of the following questions in essay form. You may consult among yourselves if you wish, but the answer to the question must be your own answer in your own words. You should utilize only materials from the assigned reading as well as the lectures in developing your answer. The use of outside sources is not required nor is it permitted. Referencing specific materials from assigned primary sources requires a citation. Anything else constitutes plagiarism. Direct quotation from the text and primary sources is prohibited, but citing the source of specific relevant information stated in your own words is not.
Please note: Information available exclusively through a www. location is not permitted as a source for the completion of this assignment. Therefore, citing a “web address” is not permitted.
Your essays should be typed, using standard margins and font size (12), double-spaced. Deviation from this requirement may result in the loss of credit. Your grade will be based on both form and content and should be written in Standard English. Each essay should no less than two (2) pages in length, and the total for both essays should be no less than five (5) pages. Additionally, the total length of the assignment should be no more than eight (8) pages. Assignments longer than eight (8) pages will not be accepted on the due date and will be considered late. Consult the course syllabus for additional information regarding the completion of the assignment.
These questions require the development of a logically constructive narrative and not simply the presentation and/or a listing of information. Please review your answers to ensure that they are clear, concise, and free of all ambiguity. Due in class 3/6. All late papers will be marked down one (1) grade.
1) Compare and contrast the earliest English settlements of Jamestown and others throughout the southern colonies with those settlements first established at Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay and throughout the New England colonies during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. Discuss and evaluate their most significant characteristics in terms of the following:
Motivations of the colonists for settlement
Demographics of the population over time (i.e. age,
ethnicity, and gender)
Mobilization and Utilization of labor
Economic system and its implications
Also, discuss what you consider to be the most significant difference between these two areas? What is/are the cause(s) of that difference?
2) Thomas Paine presented a persuasive case in support of colonial independence from England in his compelling pamphlet, Common Sense, published in January, 1776.
Discuss what Paine considers to be the most significant shortcomings of the English system of governance over the American colonies in terms of both the monarchy and the English parliament. What were the most serious flaws in the system of monarchy as practiced by George III?
Be sure to include in your answer an explanation of how the government ruling the English colonies had become, according to Paine, “arbitrary and coercive,” and had made a mockery of what had previously been embraced as the guarantor of individual rights due to its “mixed and balanced” design? (Specific examples are helpful in making a case.) Finally, why was reconciliation with England presented as impractical and unwise?
3) Although the system of national government provided by the Articles of Confederation had a number of weaknesses and was discarded, it did compile a record of achievement. In regard to the government under the Articles of Confederation:
A) Identify and discuss two (2) of its weaknesses and two (2) of its achievements. What, in your opinion was the most
significant achievement of the government under this system?
What was its most significant weakness?
B) Explain how the system of federalism was implemented in the
U.S. Constitution and how it was intended to correct what were
seen as the fatal flaws in the national government as practiced under the Articles of Confederation. What is federalism?
C) What, in your opinion, was the most significant compromise
resulting from the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
Discuss its significance.
4) In the debate over the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, Americans disagreed about specific features of a new government that were intended to defend the achievements of the Revolution without sacrificing its principles. This debate further reflected disagreements about the Revolution’s achievements and aims. In Federalist Number 10, James Madison argued that the perils posed by the republican governments instituted during the Revolution were remedied by the proposed federal Constitution.
A) According to Madison, how was a “faction” defined? Explain what he identified as the cause of factions? Discuss why Madison contended that factions were undesirable, and explain the way in which he believed the causes of factions could be eliminated and their negative effects on good government controlled.
B) Discuss Madison’s concerns regarding “an interested and overbearing
Majority,” and explain how he contended that the new Constitution would provide for vital checks on majorities.
C) In terms of Madison’s argument in support for the new Constitution, identify what was the most significant difference between a republic and a democracy? Explain why Madison contended that a large republic was better than a small one.
N.B. In answering question #4, direct quotations are not permitted. Rather, a concise explanation of the quotation in terms of answering the question should be presented as part of your answer.