Methodology

Q: How can Idetermine which statistical procedures I should use? Answer: You can determinewhich statistical procedures are appropriate for your study by reviewing theInferential Statistics found in the textbook. You can also contact me if youhave any questions. There is a link in the MRP5 instructions to a presentationthat helps determine which procedure you should use.

Q: Where can Ifind examples of statistical procedures in use? Answer: Examples of statisticalprocedures (and how they are presented in papers) in use can be found inChapter 9 of our textbook as well as in the journal articles you reviewed. Readthose relevant examples, you will have an understanding of the actual use ofthose statistical procedures.

Q: How to determine a dependent variable?

Answer: The dependent variable is the variable that you are trying to measure. Here is one example: Dependent variable is retention rate of freshmen (dichotomous dependent variable). I plan to use high school GPA as my independent variable.

Q: Do I need to include the survey/questionnaire in the measures section?

Answer: You do not need include the actual survey/questionnaire in the methodology section. You need to explain it under the instrument heading though. You should include the actual survey in the appendices section.

Q: Do I need to present tables and figures of findings in the plan of data analysis section? Answer: No, you aren’t collecting and analyzing data.

ADM 630 Methods of Research

Major Research Proposal

Major Research Proposal 5 (Methodology) Instructions

Methodology – The methodology consists of your plan to conduct the study. In the methodology section, describe in detail the following outline below. It is imperative you make no assumptions or shortcuts to explaining the procedures for conducting this study. A layman should be able to read your explanation and understand it clearly. A simple study, as the one required for this course, should have a methodology section no greater than 2-4 pages.

Description

The structure of your methodology section must be in accordance with the following provided outline, but not written in outline format. MRP 5 should be formatted as a traditional paper, using appropriate headings.

Methodology

I.Introduction (paragraph includes the research problem in the paragraph)

II.Research Design

III.Setting and Background

IV.Population and Sample

V.Hypothesis/Research question(s)

VI.Instrument (if applicable)

VII.Variables (if quantitative)

VIII.Data Collection

IX.Data Analysis

X.Summary

Expanded Description

Introduction – 3 to 4 sentences explaining the purpose of the study. Introduce reader to what the section will include.

Research Design – is your study experimental, non-experimental, causal-comparative, correlation, survey research, descriptive, ground theory, case study, ethnography, phenomenology, focus groups, historical research, etc… Explain what design you chose and why it best fits your selected research problem.

Setting and Background – tell the reader something important about the setting. This is especially important in qualitative research. Help the reader understand the organization and its stakeholders.

Population and Sample – describe the participants/subjects and the population; how are they similar and different from one another. Exhaust these comparisons.

Instrument (if applicable) – did you use a database, questionnaire, survey, software program, etc…to collect your data? Provide validity and reliability information if available. Describe the development of your instrument; how you intend to pilot-test it to ensure face validity; a draft instrument should be available in an appendix; indicate which items will be used to answer which research questions. If your instrument has already been developed, you will want to describe the instrument, who validated it, how it has been used, research or researchers who use it, where it is available (or how it was acquired), and it should be included in the appendix. Data Collection – the most detailed portion of the section. This is a “how to” manual for someone who might want to repeat your study; think of it as a cookbook or directions for assembling a bookshelf. Describe how you will address IRB issues; how you will protect human rights, anonymity, gain consent, etc…Explain in detail the administration of the instrument; include dates and how participants were contacted. How will you enter/record the data, analyze the data, use statistics to test the hypothesis, what p value will you use.

Data Analysis – Qualitative – Describe, in detail, how you will a) identify, classify, code or label, and b) order or combine your themes; c) how you will verify or triangulate themes or other findings; d) how you will handle inconsistencies; e) how you will create your theory (if ethnography). Be very detailed. Have a plan. Quantitative – what statistical technique/test will you use to test the hypothesis? Simple descriptive, t-test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Chi square, ANOVA, multiple or logistical regression, etc…Explain why this analysis is best, using appropriate citations.Summary – provide a summary of what was introduced in this section

READ ALSO :   Qualitative Research Designs

Resources Chapter 5-14 Frequently Asked Questions:

Q: How do I organize my methodology plan? Answer: You must present your research question first, and then explain what statistical procedures you would use to address that research question.

Q: How can I determine which statistical procedures I should use? Answer: You can determine which statistical procedures are appropriate for your study by reviewing the Inferential Statistics found in the textbook. You can also contact me if you have any questions. There is a link in the MRP5 instructions to a presentation that helps determine which procedure you should use.

Q: Where can I find examples of statistical procedures in use? Answer: Examples of statistical procedures (and how they are presented in papers) in use can be found in Chapter 9 of our textbook as well as in the journal articles you reviewed. Read those relevant examples, you will have an understanding of the actual use of those statisticalprocedures.

Q: How to determine a dependent variable?

Answer: The dependent variable is the variable that you are trying to measure. Here is one example: Dependent variable is retention rate of freshmen (dichotomous dependent variable). I plan to use high school GPA as my independent variable.

Q: Do I need to include the survey/questionnaire in the measures section?

Answer: You do not need include the actual survey/questionnaire in the methodology section. You need to explain it under the instrument heading though. You should include the actual survey in the appendices section.

Q: Do I need to present tables and figures of findings in the plan of data analysis section? Answer: No, you aren’t collecting and analyzing data.

How to submit

Save your work as a Microsoft Word document (.doc), and submit via Canvas.

Criteria – Rubric for Evaluating Methodology

  • Research DesignoDesign is suitable for research problem and analysis
  • Setting and BackgroundoSetting and background helps readers understand significance of thesample and population
  • Population and sampleoPopulation and sample are described

oSampling technique is explained so the reader understands how your sample isuseful to the purpose of your study

  • Explain how human rights are protected
  • Hypothesis/Research questionoIs the research question clear, specific, and significant?

oDoes it represent the type of statistical method used?

  • InstrumentoClear and thorough description of instrument used in the study

oWhat reliability and validity has been tested against the instrument

  • VariablesoVariables, dependent and independent, are clearly defined/explained

oCodes associated with independent variables are named and appropriatelyassigned

  • Data CollectionoEvery step of data collection is clear

oReader has no questions as to how human rights (if applicable) are notviolated

oReader, regardless of professional background, could replicate study based onexplanation

  • Data AnalysisoProper terminology for analysis is used

oAnalysis is appropriate for research question

oClear transition from one heading to the next

oHeadings in outline address questions reader may have about researchproblem

Here’s what I have research question, outline, literature review, and references.

Research Question 1: Why should universities recruit more international students?

  1. Introduction of topic
  2. How is defined recruiting international students
    1. Universities focused on recruiting international students.
    2. Increasing number of international student’s population in United States institutes.
  3. Awareness of international students on university’s recruiters and administrators
  4. Literature Review
    1. How international students decide study abroad
      1. A variety of international students desire a higher education
    2. Benefits to international students
      1. Gain academic achievements
      2. Purpose of getting a job after graduation
  • Live in United States
  1. Benefit from international students
    1. Increasing local and university population
    2. Increasing local and university economy
  • Increasing local and university diversity
  1. Information of how America higher education institutions move to recruit international students
  2. Retaining and retention of the enrolled international students
  3. Social Media for advertising and recruiting

 

Introduction

In 2010, globally international students is recorded at 4.1 million and is expected to increase to 7 million by 2020 (Abdullah & Aziz, & Ibrahim, 2013). The Student and Exchange Visitor Information System showed active non-immigrants registered approximately 1,253,705 on July, 2013 (Hegarty, 2014). The number of international student will be gradually increasing in United States, the international students will affect to United States education system, economy, and cultural diversity, and the United States post-secondary institutes has interested in recruiting international students. The primary nations of international students originated from China, India, South Korea, and Canada (Mcfadden&Maahs-Fladung&Mallett, 2012). International student from those countries have studied in business, engineering, science, technology, and mathematics (Mcfadden&Maahs-Fladung&Mallett, 2012). The 63% of international students received the majority of their funds from their family or personal and 70% of international students in United States institute bring their primary funding from outside of United States (Ozturgut, 2013). The University of Southern California enrolled the largest number of international students (7,987), University of Illinois at Champaigh-Urbana is followed (7,287), and then New York University (7,276), Purdue University (6,903), and Columbia University (6,833) for a total of 36,286 (Mcfadden&Maahs-Fladung&Mallett, 2012). According to Purdue University, 12% of student population is international student, and 50-60% of international students are enrolled masters or doctoral programs(Hegarty, 2014). Improving competencies and awareness of international students will become an important factor to United States and universities (Li & Olson & Frieze, 2013). Although United States have national barriers to international student such as socially, religiously, political, and economic (Mcfadden&Maahs-Fladung&Mallett, 2012), the international students can bring economic benefits to countries and local business, higher education systems, culturally and linguistically diversity (Xia & Fan & Zhu, 2016). Also, there are declining the number of U.S. domestic students in the future (Hegarty, 2014).

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How international students decide study abroad

Even though universities have tried to recruit international students, there are differences factors to decide international student to study abroad. 70% of International students received financial support from their family or personal. For example, “Chinese economy giving its wealthy class more disposable income to invest in longer educational programs abroad” (Hegarty, 2014). When international students decide their study abroad institutes, they are considering size of university where are preferred in smaller and mid-sized universities (Hegarty, 2014). Also, they have interested in the university’s U.S. Rank, majors, cost of tuition and expenses, family recommendations, and university name recognition (Hegarty, 2014). However, international students from developing countries want to significant contributions to their home country to improve their entire infrastructure such as education, politic, and economic systems (Xia & Fan & Zhu, 2016). Otherwise, there are existing a several internal factors to decide study abroad. Some international students decide to study abroad to achieve motivation which is academic challenging to deserve a degree and overcome different educational background. NeoPhilia, which is defined as the “appreciation for and even a desire to have, fresh, new experiences”, is influence to decide study abroad to international students (Li & Olson & Frieze, 2013).  Migrant personality will be affecting their decision making to study abroad. The most main purpose of study aboard is academic achievement, exploring a new culture or learn another education system and language, but study abroad contains a travel component because the international students traveled from their home country to foreign country (Li & Olson & Frieze, 2013). Therefore, we can consider the migrant personality is one of factor to decide study abroad for international students.

Benefits to International students

When international student decide study abroad, they expect benefits such as academic, career pathway, and immigration. Study aboard can help international student to build their development of cognitive, self-confidence, intercultural awareness, second language skills, and long-term career impact (Li & Olson & Frieze, 2013). Approximately 50% of PhD’s in science and engineering have been awarded to international students since 2006 (Mcfadden&Maahs-Fladung&Mallett, 2012). Although many international students enrolled community college to reduce cost and improve English language skills prior to applying to 4-year colleges, the students will enrolled advanced degrees in masters or doctoral (Hegarty, 2014). This is because a greater percentage of occupy chance, when they finished graduate program than undergraduate probram (Hegarty, 2014). Also, they could gain a chance to long-term living in United States with employment sponsorship (Hegarty, 2014). When international student received an academic degree within undergraduate or graduate, they can apply OPT (Optical Practical Training) between a year and 30 months depending on what they have major. While an opinion insists that OPT is encouraged to leave the skilled international students after graduation, OPT period is one of opportunities to international student to get a career (Hegarty, 2014). Even though there are existing socially and religiously, political, economic barriers, international students, who are studying in United States, have expected reaching an academic achievements, getting opportunity of career pathway after graduation, and a change to live United States.

Benefits from International Students

International students contributes not only United States economic but also research and teaching assistants in science, technology, and so on (Ozturgut, 2013). International students bring money to their educational institutions and fill academic career position as teaching and research assistants, and also international students bring cultural diversity to school (Casto&Steinhauer& Pollock, 2012). “The increased reliance by U.S. higher education institutions on student tuition and fees to fund operations will only increase the number of institutions exploring the alternative revenue stream international students represent” (Brennan &Dellow, 2013). $22 billion dollars into the U.S economy each year from international students is one of the largest revenue source. The revenue is bigger than gaming industry ($18 billion), weight loss industry ($20 billion), and domestic music and movie industries combined ($20 billion). International students spent their money to tuition, fees, food, clothing travel and textbook. International students support university and local economies (Hegarty, 2014). “State of rural schools in light of declining enrollments and the historical and current school and district consolidation efforts” (Casto&Steinhauer& Pollock, 2012).

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Retaining and Retention of the enrolled international students

Even if school hired international students, if school fail retaining and retention their international students who are enrolled as active students, the number of enrolled international students is fluctuating. To retaining and retention the students, institutions need to know about what they want, what purpose lead to study abroad, and what they concerned. According University of Minnesota, they figured out what factors resist recruiting and retaining international students. There are five factors: 9/11, increase in the non-resident tuition, growing global competition, lack of stable, and lack of a recruiting program. If school make necessary and sufficient condition with their students, the international student will retain their institutions. For example, learning language such as English is one of main purpose to international students. When they are communicating with native speaker, making native friends will be the most effective method to improve their language skills. However, one of three international students have never made an American friends. And, there are existing a discrimination against international students between American and international students (Castro &Steinhauer& Pollock, 2012). International students came from approximately 10,000 miles away and undergo different demographic and geographical environments (Abdullah & Aziz & Ibrahim, 2014). Most international students undergo social problems related to role conflicts, social integration, daily like, academic achievement, and homesickness (Ozturgut, 2013). International students need to social support such as building friendship networks, encouraging self-esteem and confidence, and reducing stress from academic achievement (Ozturgut, 2013). Faculty, staff, and other student need to appropriate and adequate resources and training in order to understanding international students (Castro &Steinhauer& Pollock, 2012).

Role of Social Media

Most post-secondary institutes have launched and changed their classrooms, facilities, grading systems, school communication, and advertising, through changing the world technology. Social media is one of great technology as the first ways interacting and communicating with students (Sandlin & Pena, 2014). 44% of high school students gathered impressions and information about college, using social networking sites. Social media can replace school’s pamphlets, brochures and other traditional recruitment materials, when a more dynamic and authentic school social media outlet meets what student’s expectation about campus life, culture, and activities (Sandlin & Pena, 2014). For example, Bradley University could hired more international student with social media, introducing their reputation, benefits of Bradley University, and academic and teaching curriculum (Amirali&Bakken, 2014). Most of institutions support from intermediaries such as commissioned agents, government agreements, and so on. However, social media exposure a large extent audiences and cost effective way of connecting with students and their families (Amirali&Bakken, 2014).

References:

Abdullah, D., Abd Aziz, M., &Mohd Ibrahim, A. (2014). A ‘research’ into international student-
related research: (Re)Visualising our stand?. Higher Education, 67(3), 235-253.

Amirali, S., &Bakken, J. P. (2015). TRENDS AND CHALLENGES OF RECRUITING AND
RETAINING INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE STUDENTS: AN INTERNAL
PERSPECTIVE. Journal Of Education Research, 9(4), 425-433.

Brennan, M., &Dellow, D. A. (2013). International Students as a Resource for Achieving
Comprehensive Internationalization. New Directions For Community Colleges,
2013(161), 27-37. doi:10.1002/cc.20046

Casto, H. G., Steinhauer, A., & Pollock, P. M. (2012). Potential Synergy: Rural School Districts
and International Student Programs. Rural Educator, 34(1),

Hegarty, N. (2014). Where We Are Now–The Presence and Importance of International
Students to Universities in the United States. Journal Of International Students, 4(3),
223-235.

Manyu, L., Olson, E. J., & Frieze, I. H. (2013). Students’ Study Abroad Plans: the Influence of
Motivational and Personality Factors. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal Of Study
Abroad
, 73-89.

McFadden, C. m., Maahs-Fladung, C. c., &Mallett, W. m. (2012). Recruiting International
Students to Your Campus. Journal Of International Students, 2(2), 157-167.

Ozturgut, O. (2013). Best Practices in Recruiting and Retaining International Students in the U.S.
Current Issues In Education, 16(2),

Sandlin, J., & Peña, E. (2014). Building Authenticity in Social Media Tools to Recruit
Postsecondary Students. Innovative Higher Education, 39(4), 333-346.

ZHANG, M. M., JIE, X., DI, F., & ZHU, J. C. (2016). Managing Student Diversity in Business
Education: Incorporating Campus Diversity Into the Curriculum to Foster Inclusion and
Academic Success of International Students. Academy Of Management Learning &
Education
, 15(2), 366-380. doi:10.5465/amle.2014.0023