There are six (6) questions for short answers. These questions will be worth 25 points and you may select four of the six questions.

(Sorry, no extra credit is available!) Short answers should be approximately one to one and a half pages in length. Answers typically are

350 to 400 words in length. They can be longer, if necessary, but large numbers of words that don’t contribute to your answers to the

questions will not be of any assistance to you!!
Remember that in your answers; I am not only looking for the “correct” answer, but also how well you use the material available to justify

your answer. Please don’t just spit back definitions or phrases from the book. I want to see you integrate the concepts in to your

answers. Your completed test is due back to me either electronically or in my office (270 LaCava) no later than 3pm on Tuesday, May10th.

1.) During the semester, we had multiple guest speakers come in to address the class. Based on your knowledge of the three paradigms

we discussed all semester, select two of the presenters (or pair of presenters) and identify which paradigm you thought they viewed their

topic from. Defend your answer with examples that are linked to the different paradigms.
Presenters included:
Nina DeAgrela Multicultural Center (Race/Education)
Sava Berhane Center for Women in Business (Gender)
Kevin Rowley Boston Police Officer (Crime)
Brett &Keriann Residence Life (Sexual Orientation)
Amy and Rich My co-worker and my Neighbor (Family Structures)
Elisa Vincent Bright Horizons (Work)
Ernie Washington 1973 Alumnus (War and Veterans)
Amanda King Assistant to President Larson (Environment)
2.) Bernie Sanders visited Pope Francis during the middle of the primary season and after he left the meetings Bernie said:”A nation

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will not survive morally or economically when so few have so much and so many have so little.”
Pope Francis said: “Working for a just distribution of the fruits of the earth and human labor is not mere philanthropy. It is a moral


From a structural functional point of view, what would the reaction to this quote be? Defend your answer.

3.) The success rate of African Americans in schools in the Boston area is significantly different from that of non-African Americans.

Using the social conflict or symbolic interaction perspective (and not racial stereotyping) what factors might account for this

difference? Defend your answer
4.) Does being pro-business mean that you are anti-environment? From a sociological perspective discuss the ways in which business and

protection of the environment clash and ways in which they coexist and even benefit one another.

5.) It seems inevitable that the 2016 US Presidential election will be a contest between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. How many of

our textbook chapter subjects do you think will be a factor or issue for each of the two presumptive candidates? Give a one or two

sentence (no more) description or example of how you think that candidate will be affected by each of those topics.

6.) The following article from The Boston Globe addresses the gap in financial resources available to some major colleges and

universities. Use the structural functional paradigm to address this article and issue.
Wealth inequality among colleges grows
10 richest universities have 30% of money among all US schools
By Laura Krantz
The 10 richest universities, led by Harvard with its astounding endowment, hold more than a third of the total wealth in all of higher

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education, according to a study released Thursday by Moody’s Investors Service that examines growing wealth inequality in higher

Analysts studied the richest 20 public and richest 20 private schools, based on total cash and investments as of fiscal year 2014. Harvard

tops the list, with $42.8 billion.
The richest institutions, which also include MIT, Yale, and Dartmouth, have grown even richer in the years after the economic collapse at

a pace that far outstrips that of less-wealthy schools, some of which are struggling to stay open, according to the study.
Those 40 colleges also received 60 percent of philanthropic gifts in fiscal 2014, according to Moody’s, a trend that is expected to

continue and further widen the gap between rich and poor schools.
Experts say it is becoming more difficult for less-wealthy schools to survive, and there is no one-size-fits-all solution.
“What we see again and again is that the most elite universities are those universities who have the most wealthy alumni,’’ said David

Callahan, editor of Inside Philanthropy.
That bifurcation is a trend in the American economy in general, and higher education, an economic engine in New England, is no exception.
“It is a much more difficult environment in which to operate,’’ said Karen Kedem, coauthor of the study.
As a result, schools with less wealth and prestige must be smart with their money and work harder to attract students. And it is the

midlevel universities that desperately want the students, Kedem said.
That is because most private colleges earn 75 percent of their revenue from tuition and fees. By comparison, the 20 richest private

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schools earn only 15 percent of their revenue from student charges.
Because they depend less on tuition, many wealthy schools, including Harvard, with its $36.4 billion endowment, use their deep pockets to

award more scholarships to low-income students. As a result, those colleges can create more economic diversity on their campuses in a way

that midlevel colleges cannot afford.
The wealthiest schools are defined by healthy cash flows, highly diversified long-term investment strategies, and exceptionally strong

philanthropic support.
Rich schools can pay better fund managers and make riskier investments, Moody’s analysts said in a phone interview. The richest schools

were harder hit by the financial crisis of 2008, but recovered more quickly and reached record levels this year, the study says.
Harvard has raised $5 billion toward a $6.5 billion capital campaign announced in fall 2013, according to the university. The gifts and

pledges received so far include one for $350 million, the largest in the university’s history. Boston University, Boston College, and

Emerson College also received their largest donations ever this year.
Public universities outperformed privates in the six years postrecession, but that trend is expected to slow because many states have

reduced higher education funding.
Chancellor Keith Motley of the University of Massachusetts Boston is part of a state system looking increasingly to private support.

Although he appreciates that the state has bolstered UMass funding in recent years, it does not come close to keeping the school

competitive, he said.
“We’re seeking private financial support in ways that my predecessors . . . would have never dreamed they would have to,’’ Motley said.
The Boston Globe-April 17, 2015